Technical Papers

Tech Papers

Technical Papers are available on a request only basis. For more information or to request any of the following Technical Papers, contact R&R’s Marketing Department.

Ceramic Shell Technical Papers

  • A New Look at Shell Permeability and the Factors that Impact It – 2009
    This paper shows that shell permeability can also be improved through changes in the backup shell system. By evaluating various primary and backup systems; the potential impact of each layer on overall shell permeability is determined. Shell permeability is analyzed in both the green and hot states, with relevant data and results being used to support the theories.
  • Advancements in Polymer Enhanced Water Based Binders and Slurries – 2001
    This paper discusses an advanced polymer enhanced primary binder that provides significant benefits to the Precision Investment Casting (PIC) industry. Detailed testing, both from the laboratory and from production environments, is presented to show how this binder offers improved slurry life, excellent wetting properties and better stability.
    Learn more about the products used: Keycote® binder
  • An Analysis of Ceramic Shell Materials – 1990
    This paper looks at various binders and refractories and determines how they affect the properties of the ceramic shell and the investment casting process.
    Learn more about the products used: Refractories
  • Ceramic Shell Green Strength – How is it Measured and What Does it Mean? – 1999/2000
    This paper evaluates various binder and refractory systems for the green shell strength. The results are compared using both traditional and alternative measuring techniques.
    Learn more about the products used: Deluxcote® concentrate
  • Energy Efficiency in the Investment Casting Foundry – 2001
    This paper addresses energy conservation in shell dewax, burnout and preheat. Comparisons made between different types of equipment (pusher vs. box furnaces, electric vs. gas-fired furnaces, etc.) and different process options (continuous vs. batch operations, autoclave and burnout vs. FlashFire Dewax). Methods for evaluating and improving energy efficiency in the foundry are discussed (with energy saving tips).
  • Evaluating Spalling Factors through Measuring Intercoat Adhesion – 2014
    This paper focuses on the development and application of a testing method to measure the weakest adhesion point of a ceramic shell sample. The resulting test can be used to isolate ceramic shell construction variables that affect intercoat adhesion of ceramic shell layers. Utilizing this method, a foundry can optimize the slurry shell building process to reduce the potential for spalling defects on their castings. This test can be employed on a small scale without the need to jeopardize standard production.
  • Getting More from your Ceramic Shell Slurry – 1990
    Ceramic shell slurries are the lifeblood of the PIC industry. They literally shape the industry's products. They also significantly measure the success of the investment casting foundry because without good quality slurries, quality production of castings is impossible.
  • Hot MOR and Creep Properties of Common Ceramic Shell Refractories – 1999
    This paper presents the hot strength properties of common refractories used in the PIC industry. By evaluating and quantifying the properties of common refractories, and blends of refractories, the investment casting foundry will have information to assist them in making decisions regarding the materials chosen to construct the ceramic shell.
    Learn more about the products used: DELUXCOTE concentrate
  • How Ceramic Shell Properties Predict Resistance to Shell Cracking – 2010
    This paper introduces a method for measuring the crack potential of a shell, and continues the work presented last year where a new look at green shell permeability was introduced as a meaningful shell characterization tool. With a repeatable shell cracking model developed, a shell’s properties can be correlated to shell dewax performance.
    Learn more about the products used: Matrixcote® system
  • Improvements in Ceramic Shell Technology Resulting from Environmental Pressures – 1993
    Environmental legislation, as opposed to pressure groups, first began to impact on investment casting foundries in the USA over five years ago; principally by introducing limits on the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as the alcohol solvents used for ethyl silicate based binder systems.
    Learn more about the products used: Water based binders vs. ethyl silicate
  • Improving Efficiency and Results with Systematic Approach to Process and Problem Resolution – 2015
    This paper discusses the implementation of formalized problem resolution methods within an organization. It demonstrates the value of a common language across multiple functions. It also provides case studies showcasing the results of implementing a decision-making/problem-solving tool. Case studies focus on situation appraisal to smoothly implement new product into production; decision analysis to bring a product solution to a customer foundry; and problem-solving to identify foundry process issues impacting results.
  • Improving Process Efficiency Through Customer/Supplier Collaboration – 2011
    This paper explores the issues that face investment foundries including their needs to reduce costs and to improve overall efficiencies of their operations with specific focus on their shell rooms. An analysis of the process and economic benefits obtained by using new generation technology along with application expertise is examined.
    Learn more about the products used: MATRIXCOTE system
  • New Developments in Rapid Dry Water Based Shell Systems – 1994
    This paper examines an innovative water based system that can be customized to conform to specific needs or parameters within a given foundry. These include both process and economic factors. The result is a unique material with application flexibility that can easily achieve a myriad of benefits. Laboratory and foundry data for various applications is reviewed.
    Learn more about the products used: Customcote® binder
  • Practical Ceramic Shell Slurry Preparation and Control – 2001
    This paper presents a practical review of slurry makeup and control. The purpose of this paper is to review, remind and in some cases instruct, the foundry as to the basics that should be followed, or at least considered, in the shell room.
  • Shell Material Consumption: How to Determine Actual Weights and Costs by Components – 1998
    In the PIC market there are often costs that are overlooked or considered to be undeterminable. This could be of concern when trying to determine what price to quote a potential customer for a given casting. This paper provides a method for determining actual shell cost for a part.
  • The Development and Application of a Specialty Colloidal Silica Sol for High Temperature Applications – 2006
    This paper will compare the specialty colloidal silica binder to traditional colloidal silica sol. Laboratory test data will be presented to highlight the above properties. Information on the process of converting to this new binder will be presented. This information will highlight the benefits of this binder to the existing process and will also present some of the hurdles that needed to be cleared in order to completely implement the binder into production.
    Learn more about the products used: EHT binder
  • The Use and Application of Ceramic Core Fill Materials – 2013
    This paper will discuss methods available to investment casters utilizing pourable core materials.  Proper application techniques and common issues will be addressed, along with case studies analyzing the process and economic benefits obtained utilizing available core materials.
    Learn more about the products used: Core Materials
  • Thermal Conductivity and Heat Flow Measurement for Ceramic Shell Molds – 1992
    This paper describes a measurement technique to compare thermal transfer properties of ceramic shell systems. Technique would give a relative thermal conductivity and heat flow figures. Data on common shell materials is also provided.
    Learn more about the products used: Refractories

Jewelry Technical Papers

  • Effects of Changing the Water-to-Powder Ratio on Jewelry Investments
    This paper explores how the various properties of a gypsum-bonded investment change as a function of the water-to-powder ratio. This paper also discusses how these changes can affect mold and casting attributes and reinforces the importance of using the water-to-powder ratio range set by investment manufacturers.
  • Effects of Water Quality & Temperature on Investment Casting Products
    This paper explores how variations in water quality and temperature impact the properties of the mixed investment. Water from a variety of sources is evaluated. In addition, proper process control to negate the impact of water quality and temperature is presented.